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Te Foreign Service ofcers of the Department of State and
the Agency for International Development are the foot soldiers
of smart power. Tese men and women lead and staf our 195
embassies, 55 consulates and 85 USAID missions around the
world. Tey are our nation’s frst line of defense.
America’s Foreign Service is permanently deployed. Its
officers report on local developments, represent American
views and values, and negotiate on our behalf. They oversee
development projects, conduct public diplomacy, protect
American citizens, issue passports and visas, and promote
U.S. exports. They implement Washington decisions and rec-
ommend changes in foreign policy, as well as further courses
of action. And they execute these and many other missions,
including supporting our military colleagues in stability
operations, often under dangerous and difficult circum-
stances, as tragically demonstrated by the recent assassina-
tions of Ambassador Christopher Stevens and his colleagues
in Benghazi, Libya.
In conducting foreign policy, diplomatic and development
personnel are—in Walter Lippmann’s apt metaphor—the
“Shield of the Republic.” Tis shield is the outer layer of our
multilayered national defense. It is employed daily to absorb
international shocks, provide early warning and manage
developing crises to avoid the use of the Sword, which inevi-
tably costs the United States dearly in lives and resources. As
U.S. military leaders frequently acknowledge, shield bearers
are as important as sword wielders. For that reason, the Shield
must be maintained.
It should be axiomatic that our presidents and Congress
would see the wisdom of lending equal support to the key ele-
ments of military and civilian power. But that has not been the
Following the implosion of the Soviet Union in 1991, the
foreign afairs agencies—like their military and intelligence
colleagues—were reduced by 30 percent in personnel and
resources. Ten, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of
Sept. 11, 2011, our military and intelligence capabilities were
n October 2008 the American Academy of Diplomacy
published its
Foreign Afairs Budget for the Future
the chairmanship of retired Ambassador Tomas D. Boy-
att. Many of the recommendations of the FAB report were
implemented by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton
and her team.
Te Academy has just released a new report
, Diplomacy
in a Time of Scarcity,
which analyzes the foreign afairs agencies’
personnel situations in light of signifcantly changed circumstances,
and makes recommendations to deal with the new realities. Te
document is signed by Ronald Neumann, president of the Academy;
Tomas R. Pickering, Advisory Group chairman; Ellen Laipson,
Stimson Center president ; and Tomas D. Boyatt, project chairman.
In recognition of this report’s importance to our readers,
Foreign Service Journal
has excerpted the document’s foreword and
executive summary, with minor modifcations to punctuation and
capitalization to conform to the magazine’s traditional format and
Te report will be the basis for consultations with Congress
designed to secure implementation of the Academy’s recommenda-
tions. To read the full report, visit
­—­Steven Alan Honley, Editor