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F O R E I G N S E R V I C E J O U R N A L / M A R C H 2 0 1 2
rors, such as his assertion that Presi-
dent Harry Truman was handily de-
feated in the 1952 election by
Republican candidate Dwight Eisen-
hower. In fact, the Democratic nom-
inee was Adlai Stevenson.
Glain also does not seem to grasp
the role a Foreign Service director
general plays within State’s personnel
system. Still, these mistakes don’t se-
riously weaken the impact of the book.
Former Secretary of State George
Shultz recently reminded us in these
very pages that “strength works in tan-
demwith diplomacy” (
, December
2011, p. 23). As the United States
strives to find the right balance be-
tween those two approaches to inter-
national relations, this book usefully
illuminates the perils and conse-
quences of employing the wrong com-
WilliamD. Bent, a Foreign Service of-
ficer since 1992, is currently chief of
post operations in the Office of Visa
Services. A State representative on the
AFSA Governing Board, he serves as
liaison to the Foreign Service Journal
Editorial Board.
A Handy Overview
The National Security Enter-
prise: Navigating the Labyrinth
Roger Z. George and Harvey
Rishikof, editors, Georgetown Uni-
versity Press, 2011, $32.95, paper-
back, 367 pages.
If embassy resources can spring for
just one publication in these austere
budgetary times, I can think of no
finer purchase than
The National Se-
curity Enterprise
. The book is replete
with nuggets of information about vir-
tually every agency involved in U.S.
foreign policy, as well as solid veins of
analytical ore for everyone from jun-
ior officers to career ambassadors.
Following a foreword by former
National Security Adviser Brent Scow-
croft, editors Roger George and Har-
vey Rishikof explain what they mean
by “the national security enterprise.”
They then turn to a stellar group of
contributors to describe each compo-
nent of that entity, starting (appropri-
ately) with an overview of State by
retired Ambassador Marc Grossman,
who is now U.S. special envoy to
Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Even those Foreign Service per-
sonnel who frequently interact with
other agencies will learn a great deal
in this volume. For instance, the
chapter on the Office of the Secretary
of Defense explains the still-unfolding
influence of the 1986 Goldwater-
Nichols Act, and recounts how the
Pentagon deliberately refused to use
the interagency process in planning
for the 2003 invasion and reconstruc-
tion of Iraq.
When Condoleezza Rice, then na-
tional security adviser, re-established
an Executive Steering Group in July
2003 to coordinate interagency activ-
ity, OSD sent only lower-ranked offi-
cials to the table. That ploy prevented
any meaningful coordination in such
critical areas as electricity supplies, se-
curity for humanitarian aid missions,
translators for U.S. troops, and the de-
tailing of skilled specialists to the
Coalition Provisional Authority from
other agencies.
Other contributors describe the
struggle to establish an effective Di-
rectorate of National Intelligence; the
evolving role of the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, as it pivots to deal with
counterintelligence and terrorismwith
the same vigor that it historically dealt
with law enforcement; and the strug-
gle to create an effective Department
of Homeland Security by integrating
several autonomous, high-profile enti-
ties while subject to 86 congressional
oversight committees.
The chapter on Congress tells a
story that most of us already know, but
the details of its struggles with the ex-
ecutive branch over the past decade
are still illuminating. At a minimum,
they suggest that former Senator
Arlen Specter was right to predict in
2008 that “historians will look back at
the period from 9/11 to the present as
an era of unbridled executive power
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