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overall readiness of the nation for international emergencies, as

well as Cold War situations.

This year 149 students, including 27 civilians, of whom

three are Foreign Service officers, are engaged in making this

analysis. By June 1961, they will have heard some 200 lectures

on the national security, viewed in its military, diplomatic and

economic aspects; each will have prepared a written thesis on

a personally selected aspect of national security policy; and all

will have worked together in small seminar groups to develop

an agreed solution to a major “final problem” arising out of

the major types of international conflict situations facing the

United States.

In addition to the lectures and student research program,

the course of studies at the College includes visits to military

and industrial areas within the United States as well as a pro-

gram of visits to selected foreign countries. …

For the civilian student taking the resident course, and

particularly for the Foreign Service officer, the lectures by

the Defense Department officials on international problems

are often challenging and stimulating, representing as they

sometimes do, a different but always thoughtful emphasis of

the American military and diplomatic posture. One of the most

impressive features of these presentations is that they rarely

seem to represent the thinking of that stereotype, “the military

mind.” Instead, they are almost always characterized by an

integrated view of all of the factors—military, economic, social

and political—that constitute the equation of national security.

The encouragement of this integrated approach to national

policy is the most important objective of the College. …

Insofar as the Department of State is concerned, the greatest

impact of the College on matters of immediate concern to the

department is, of course, through the regular 10-month course

at Fort McNair. Here, in excellent surroundings that would be

difficult to duplicate in the Washington area, senior military

officers and selected civilian officials are given an opportunity

to stand back and appraise the posture of the United States in

the world today.

During those 10 months, every effort is made to stimulate

creative thought and understanding on the part of students

regarding the complex problems of national security without

regard to service or departmental requirements or positions—

only the national interest. …

n

D

ecember

1960:

Education For

the National Security

BY JAMES J . BLAKE

The late Ambassador James J. Blake retired from the Foreign Service

in 1981 after a 34-year career during which he served overseas in

Brussels, Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Tripoli, as well as Reykjavík,

where he was U.S. ambassador. In Washington, he served as deputy

assistant secretary for African affairs and on the Army staff in the

Pentagon as a political-military officer concerned with strategic

planning, among other assignments. He graduated from the In-

dustrial College of the Armed Forces in 1961 and earned a master’s

degree fromThe George Washington University in 1962.

This excerpt is from his December 1960

FSJ

article, which did not

include an author biographical note.

O

ne of the most important develop-

ments in foreign policy since World

War II has been its general recasting

into the mold of national security.

Today few significant areas of Ameri-

ca’s foreign relations are without their

national security aspects: regional

alliances, foreign aid, the status of forces and trade policy come

most readily to mind, but there are others. The result is that the

military, economic and political components of our foreign

relations today are far more closely associated than was ever

the case before World War II.

Similarly, our own policies and actions in the fields of eco-

nomics, science and civil defense—to name only a few—have

come to have an important bearing on our international pos-

ture. In such changed circumstances the comprehensive study

of national security problems by senior military educational

institutions has become of increasing interest to the Depart-

ment of State and the Foreign Service.

Evidence of this enhanced interest was the appointment for

the first time in 1959 of a State Department Representative and

Foreign Affairs Adviser to the Commandant of the Industrial

College of the Armed Forces. The appointment was in recogni-

tion of the fact that the College had become, since its establish-

ment in 1948 in Washington, D. C., one of the most important

senior military educational institutions. …

Throughout the 10 months of its resident course, a searching

and critical analysis is made by its students, who are generally

in the grade of colonel or Navy captain and are drawn from

among the highest qualified officers of the four Services, of the

FROM THE

FSJ

ARCHIVE

30

JUNE 2017

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THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL