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and Germany. It is a coalition of developing and developed

countries and international institutions working together to help

developing countries achieve their climate objectives. In par-

ticular, the partnership aims to help countries navigate the “vast,

fragmented array” of technical and financial support through its

knowledge products such as the NDC Funding and Initiatives

Navigator database and the NDC Toolbox Navigator.

Green Climate Fund.

Although launched under the auspices

of the UNFCCC, the GCF operates as an independent organiza-

tion with a separate board comprised of 12 developed and 12

developing nations and its own secretariat in South Korea. The

GCF is intended to be a principal mechanism for providing

developing countries with support for low-carbon, climate-

resilient development and adaptation. To date, 43 countries

have pledged more than $10 billion, including $3 billion from

the United States, of which $1 billion has been paid. GCF uses

multiple financial instruments, including grants, concessional

loans, debt, equity and guarantees, and has a dedicated private-

sector facility.


Non-Paris Multilateral Initiatives

Formal Agreements.

Two other climate-relevant international

agreements were successfully negotiated in the months following

adoption of the Paris Agreement but independent of it:

Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

Adopted in

October 2016, the amendment provides for a global phase-down

of certain hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are chemicals used

chiefly in refrigeration and air conditioning as substitutes for

ozone-depleting substances. These HFCs are extremely potent

heat-trapping gases (up to several thousand times more power-

ful than carbon dioxide). Implementation of the amendment will

prevent more than 0.5 degrees Celsius of warming this century,

a significant contribution toward the Paris Agreement’s goal of

holding warming to less than 2 degrees.

Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International


. CORSIA was adopted in October 2016 by the Interna-

tional Civil Aviation Organization to avoid post-2020 growth in

carbon dioxide emissions from international civilian flights that

depart from one country and arrive in another. CORSIA is the first