Page 15 - Foreign Service Journal - October, 2012b

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[The Iraq War] was one of the great strategic
decisions of the frst half of the 21st century,
if it proves not to be the greatest.
Stephen Cambone, under secretary of Defense for intelligence during the GeorgeW. Bush
administration, responding to a question during the Aspen Security Forum’s July 27
“Lessons Learned from Iraq” panel discussion.
ureaucracy in Crisis: How the State Department
Responded to 9/11” is the title of Darina Shtrakhman’s
March 28 honors thesis featured in the University of Penn-
College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal
Shtrakhman’s summer 2011 public diplomacy internship at
the State Department inspired her to research the topic.
In her thesis abstract, Shtrakhman poses the question:
“What if the enormous and complex federal structure we’ve
created is so large and entrenched that it resists change, even
when faced with an emergency?”
She begins by reviewing the U.S. response to the various
al-Qaida attacks preceding 9/11, with special emphasis on
the August 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya
and Tanzania. She then looks briefy at how State’s structure
and mission expanded during the ColdWar and its aftermath,
before assessing changes since 2001.
Shtrakhman concludes that while State “has improved its
public diplomacy eforts in theMuslimworld and its approach
to counterterrorism, an absence of outside pressure from
commissions and a lack of funding have prevented the depart-
ment frommaking dramatic changes to the bureaucratic
structure. This, in turn, has negative consequences for how
diplomats carry out theirmissions in a technologically sophis-
ticated and multipolar world.”
Visit U. Penn’s
Undergraduate Journal
site, at http://reposi,
to read a detailed, insightful les-
son on what it means to never forget.
—Emily A. Hawley, Editorial Intern
and China but tend to circulate within
these countries for years rather than
being imported directly from producing
Te survey also confrms that a high
volume of even antiquated weapons can
be very efective, especially in countries
where government
arsenals are also
behind the times (e.g.,
Afghan police forces
facing the Taliban).
More encouragingly,
however, the data also
suggest that eforts
to limit the spread
of technologically
arms and newer
generations of
weapons have been successful.
Founded in 1945, the Federation of
American Scientists is a nonpartisan
think-tank that works to fnd solutions for
science and security policy challenges.
—Emily A. Hawley,
Editorial Intern
LOST at Sea?
hirty years ago, the Law of the Sea
Treaty (formally known as the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea) was completed after negotiations
lasting from 1973 through 1982. Replacing
four 1958 agreements, the treaty defnes
the rights and responsibilities of nations
in their use of the world’s oceans, and
establishes guidelines for businesses
regarding environmental protection
and the management of marine natural
In 1982 President Ronald Reagan
called for renegotiation of some of the
treaty’s deep seabed mining provisions,
a process that led to the 1994 Agreement
Relating to the Implementation of Part
XI (the mining regime). Tat agreement,
which the United States signed, makes the
treaty’s terms signifcantly more favorable
to the United States; in fact, some of its
provisions went even further than what
Washington had sought. Yet no U.S.
administration has submitted the treaty
for Senate ratifcation, though they have
all have abided by its terms.
Meanwhile, the convention entered